There has always been controversy about the role of medication in the treatment of ADHD. It is true that many children and adults have not had good experiences with medication, and there are contentions that it is overprescribed and perhaps not always used for justifiable reasons. This is not for lack of scientific support and clear guidelines for when and how medication should be used, however. The truth is that medications for the treatment of ADHD have been extensively studied for the past four decades. There are well over 200 well designed studies demonstrating their safety and effectiveness, more than any other class of psychoactive drugs, and more than most of the medications in your medicine cabinet, including aspirin. When prescribed appropriately and monitored systematically, medications can be the single most effective component of a comprehensive treatment approach. The most important questions that should be asked when considering medication options are: (1) Do you want to and is it appropriate for you to try medication? And, (2) Will you be followed carefully to ensure you are on the right type, the right dose, and the right schedule of medication to optimize benefits and safety?